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EMI stands for “Equated Monthly Installment.” It is a fixed amount of money that a borrower pays to a lender on a monthly basis as part of repaying a loan. EMI includes both the principal amount (the initial borrowed amount) and the interest accrued on that principal. EMIs are commonly used for various types of loans such as home loans, car loans, personal loans, and more.

Here’s a breakdown of the EMI process, how to calculate it using an EMI calculator, and the factors affecting EMI:

EMI Calculation Process:

The formula to calculate EMI involves the loan amount, interest rate, and tenure (loan repayment period) as key factors. The formula for calculating EMI is:

EMI = P * r * (1 + r)^n / ((1 + r)^n – 1)


  • EMI = Equated Monthly Installment
  • P = Principal Loan Amount
  • r = Monthly Interest Rate (annual interest rate divided by 12 and then by 100)
  • n = Number of Monthly Installments (loan tenure in months)

Using an EMI Calculator:

Calculating EMI manually can be complex, so online EMI calculators are widely used. To calculate EMI using an EMI calculator:

  1. Enter the loan amount you wish to borrow.
  2. Enter the annual interest rate applicable to your loan.
  3. Input the loan tenure in years or months.
  4. The EMI calculator will then provide you with the monthly EMI amount.

Factors Affecting EMI:

  1. Loan Amount: A higher loan amount will result in a higher EMI.
  2. Interest Rate: A higher interest rate leads to a higher EMI, and vice versa.
  3. Loan Tenure: Longer tenure reduces the EMI, but increases the total interest paid over the loan’s lifetime. A shorter tenure increases the EMI but reduces the overall interest paid.
  4. Type of Interest: Fixed or floating interest rate can affect the EMI calculation.
  5. Frequency of Compounding: Compounding interest more frequently can impact the EMI.
  6. Prepayments: Making prepayments can lower the outstanding principal, thus affecting the EMI.

It’s important to note that while the EMI amount remains the same throughout the loan tenure, the proportion of principal and interest components changes over time. Initially, a larger portion of the EMI goes towards interest, while the principal portion gradually increases as the loan is repaid.

When considering a loan, make sure to understand the terms and conditions, the total interest cost, and your financial capability to comfortably pay the EMI over the loan tenure.